How to fix the central bank
If the main problem is the flow rather than the stock of debt, how can an external creditor, i.e. a US/EUR-denominated bondholder, do his part? Coupons already have a shallow annual interest, between 0.5% and 4%. Added to this is that the first critical deadlines for capital repayment are 2030, 2035 and 2038. Bondholders have been asked to do their part many times in the last twenty years; the latest restructuring dates back to 2020.